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Ghostwatch

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Posted 09 January 2012 - 02:39 PM

Ghostwatch is a British reality–horror/mockumentary television movie, first broadcast on BBC1 on 31 October (Halloween), 1992. Despite having been recorded weeks in advance, the narrative was presented as 'live' television. Following its first and only UK television broadcast the show attracted a considerable furore.

Written by Stephen Volk, and directed by Lesley Manning, the drama was produced for the BBC anthology series, Screen One, by Richard Broke, Ruth Baumgarten and Derek Nelson. As yet, Ghostwatch has only ever been repeated on television outside of the UK - on stations such as the Canadian digital channel SCREAM for Halloween 2004, and the Belgian channel Canvas in 2008. Ghostwatch received a huge audience and an estimated 30,000 calls to the BBC switchboard in a single hour. In 2002, the British Film Institute released a 10th Anniversary edition on VHS and DVD.

A retrospective documentary (Ghostwatch: Behind the Curtains) based on the film's lasting impact has been in production since late 2007, and is said to be backed by many of the film's original cast and crew.


Plot summary:

The 90-minute film was a horror story shot in a documentary style and appeared as part of BBC Drama's Screen One series. It involved BBC reporters performing a live, on-air investigation of a house in Northolt, Greater London at which poltergeist activity was believed to be taking place. Through revealing footage and interviews with neighbours and the family living there, they discover the existence of a malevolent ghost nicknamed Pipes from his habit of knocking on the house's plumbing. As the programme proceeds, viewers learn that Pipes is the spirit of a psychologically disturbed man called Raymond Tunstall, himself believed to have been troubled by the spirit of Mother Seddons – a 'baby farmer' turned child killer from the 19th century.

In the course of the programme Pipes makes various manifestations which become more bold and terrifying, until, at the end, the frightened reporters realise that the programme itself has been acting as a sort of "national séance" through which Pipes was gaining horrific power. Finally, the spirit unleashes its power to the fullest extent, dragging Sarah Greene to her probable death behind a doorway and then escaping to express poltergeist activity throughout the country. He takes control of the BBC studios and transmitter network, using the Ghostwatch studio as a focal point and possessing Michael Parkinson in the process.


Behind the scenes:

In truth, the story, though based on the tale of the Enfield Poltergeist, was put into production months before and was complete fiction. However, the presentation contained realistic elements which suggested to a casual viewer that it was an actual documentary. The studio scenes were recorded in Studio TC6 in the BBC Television Centre in London. The scenes at the house and the street were all shot on location around 5–6 weeks before the recording of the studio scenes. The recorded scenes in the house and street were then played into the studio, where Michael Parkinson, Mike Smith, and "Doctor Pascoe" had to interact with material shot 5–6 weeks previously. A phone number was shown on the screen so that viewers could "call in" and discuss ghostly phenomena.

The number was the standard BBC call-in number at the time, 081 811 8181 (also used on programmes such as Going Live), and callers who got through were connected first to a message telling them that the show was fictional, before being given the chance to share their own ghost stories. However, the phone number was besieged by callers during the showing and many people who telephoned it simply got an engaged tone. This commonly happened when phoning BBC 'call-in' shows and inadvertently added to the realism instead of reassuring viewers that it was fiction. The set and filming methods, including shaky hand-held video cameras, lent a documentary feel. Most convincing of all was the use of actual BBC personalities playing themselves. Sarah Greene and Craig Charles were the reporters on the scene at the house, while Mike Smith (Greene's real-life husband) and Michael Parkinson linked from the studio.

Ghostwatch was originally conceived by writer Stephen Volk as a six-part drama (similar to Edge of Darkness) in which a fictional paranormal investigator and a TV reporter investigate poltergeist activity at a North London housing estate, gradually discovering more elements of the mystery each week. This would have culminated in the final episode in a live TV broadcast from the property, in the vein of Nigel Kneale's The Quatermass Experiment and Quatermass and the Pit, in both of which "all hell breaks loose". However, when producer Ruth Baumgarten doubted the viability of an entire mini-series and recommended instead a 90-minute TV special, Volk suggested that they "do the whole thing like Episode Six", portraying it as an actual "live" broadcast fronted by well-known TV personalities.

The BBC, however, became concerned over the effect the broadcast would have on the public and very nearly pulled the show shortly before broadcast. Ultimately they insisted on adding opening credits including the writer's name, in addition to a Screen One title sequence.


The ghost:

Behind-the-scenes photo of actor Keith Ferrari as "Pipes." The film's fictional, villainous spectre, referred to by the children as Pipes and credited simply as "Ghost", is depicted as a merging of negative, spiritual energies, which parapsychologist Dr. Pascoe theorizes have been accumulating for years, possibly back to prehistory. Its physical appearance mostly resembles that of deceased child molester Raymond Tunstall, a fictional character who, it is revealed by a phone-in caller, committed suicide at the haunted property some time in the 1960s after himself being possessed by the entity. It is suggested that the character of Suzanne Early may become the next 'layer' in the ghost's spiritual make-up, and in the final moments of the film the entity possesses television host Michael Parkinson.

In May 2010, at a public screening of the film at The Invisible Dot in Camden, director Lesley Manning revealed that she provided the voice of Pipes the ghost after the professional voice artist hired for the production could not accurately replicate the style of voice she had intended.


Technology:

Many methods familiar to modern ghost-hunting shows such as Most Haunted are demonstrated in the show, some of which were either genuine state-of-the-art technology at the time or simulated to give the idea they were real. The house was allegedly equipped with motion detectors, temperature sensors, and covert cameras. The temperature sensors were referred to as being able to check for dramatic changes in temperature that ghost hunters link to real-life ghost sightings. One major feature of the show was a genuine thermographic camera, which, although it did not pick up any ghosts, came in very handy when all the lights failed at the end of the show.

Ghostly depictions:

The programme makers used many examples of allegedly paranormal phenomena.


Apparitions:

The ghost, described by characters in the programme as a disfigured, androgynous person wearing a buttoned-up robe or dress appears a total of eight times during the course of the film. These are often fleeting, almost subliminal appearances, and can be found by skipping ahead to the following points:

During playback of haunted bedroom footage (0:20:48) - In the studio, the presenters examine video footage of a bedroom scene in which a shadowy figure can be seen behind the curtains in the bedroom of Suzanne and Kim Early. Three versions of the apparition are shown intermittently to confuse the viewer - one with the figure, one where it is slightly faded out, and one where it is not seen at all.

In the studio (0:30:28) - Behind Dr Pascoe as she plays the "possessed voice" tape for Michael Parkinson. This appearance is more easily visible if the brightness of the screen is increased.

Amongst the crowds (0:47:22) - Outside the house in Foxhill Drive, as Craig Charles calls for Arthur Lacey to join him, the ghost can be seen standing among the crowd of onlookers, apparently unnoticed.

In the kitchen (0:54:59) - Reflected in the glass of the kitchen door, moments after Sarah discovers the children's drawings on the floor and is startled by a cat outside.

Haunted bedroom (1:11:55) - In front of the curtains in the girls' bedroom as the house is evacuated. The ghost is briefly visible as the cameraman turns, but is gone again when he whips the camera back round for a second look.

Under the stairs (1:17:12) - Inside the cupboard under the stairs, a fraction of a second before the mirror leaps off the wall and knocks soundman, Mike Aiton unconscious.

Close-up in static (1:27:41) - In a burst of static just as the cupboard door slams shut - sealing both Suzanne and Sarah inside the Gloryhole. This appearance only lasts for three frames, but provides a partial close-up look at the ghost's mauled face.

On the gantry (1:27:42) - On a gantry in the TV studio as the lights start to explode.

In 2008, a potential 9th sighting (at 1:16:18) was uploaded via the Ghostwatch: Behind the Curtains YouTube page. The video features a digitally enhanced close-up of what appears to be a reflection of the ghost in the hallway mirror shortly before it crashes onto soundman, Mike Aiton. According to the info box on the same page, the director of Ghostwatch, Lesley Manning has since debunked this sighting as a false positive.


Spiritual possession:

During the course of the programme there are many references to characters being allegedly possessed by a ghost who, whilst doing so, maniacally recites nursery rhymes. This happens in a tape recording of the eldest daughter Suzanne, later in a 'live' section to the same character and eventually Michael Parkinson himself is seen to be possessed.


Sudden temperature changes:

The show references temperature changes being linked to ghosts and claims to be monitoring the temperature in each room of the house to check for this. Mutilated household objects are shown which were purportedly analysed by the army and found to have been subjected to rapid temperature change.


Poltergeist activity:

In both alleged recordings and live segments of the show we see objects moving of their own accord which, it is claimed, is a result of poltergeist activity. Also a perfectly round patch of water appears on the living room carpet and animal scratch marks also appear on Suzanne's's face. Banging noises are intermittently heard during the climax of the show. At one point the producers play on this by exposing Suzanne as the one causing the banging noises, creating a hoax within a hoax. However this later occurs when both girls are accounted for. Near the end of the programme, when a wind whips through the studio, the cups and plates brought in by Doctor Pascoe as evidence of the poltergeist activity in the house, begin to move on their own, and one cup falls onto the studio floor and smashes into pieces.


Disembodied voices:

Although the ghost of the story is only heard to speak through the voices of others we hear the disembodied sounds of cats whenever phenomena are taking place.


Controversy:

Much of the British public believed the events to be true and some controversy ensued after its airing. This was all in spite of the fact that Screen One was a drama slot, the programme aired with a "Written by ..." credit at the start, and a cast list was published in the BBC's Radio Times listings magazine. There is a long running rumour that Sarah Greene had advertised the programme on her Saturday morning children's show Going Live, including a "visit" to the location of the "haunting" and gave the impression that she was taking part in a 'reality show' and not a drama.

However, the Ghostwatch: Behind the Curtain blog (which gathers information for a long mooted documentary about the show) acquired the three most likely episodes (the week before, the day Ghostwatch was shown, and the week after) and found no reference to the show. The BBC was besieged with phone calls from irate and frightened viewers, and British tabloids and other newspapers criticised the BBC the next day for the disturbing nature of some scenes, such as Greene's final scene where she is locked in an under-stairs cupboard with the howling ghost, and Parkinson's eerie possession scene.

The reaction to the programme led the BBC to place a decade-long ban on the programme being repeated after its initial broadcast and, although this has now been lifted, it remains unlikely that it will ever be shown again on British terrestrial television. The British Film Institute released it on on VHS and Region 2 DVD in November 2002.


Psychological effects:

A number of psychological effects were reported in Ghostwatch's wake:

18-year-old factory worker Martin Denham, who suffered from learning difficulties and had a mental age of 13, committed suicide five days after the programme aired. The family home had suffered with a faulty central heating system which had caused the pipes to knock; Denham linked this to the activity in the show causing great worry. He left a suicide note reading "if there are ghosts I will be ... with you always as a ghost". His mother and stepfather, April and Percy Denham, blamed the BBC. They claimed that Martin was "hypnotised and obsessed" by the programme. The Broadcasting Standards Commission refused their complaint, along with 34 others, as being outside their remit, but the High Court granted the Denhams permission for a judicial review requiring the BSC to hear their complaint.

In its ruling, the BSC stated that "The BBC had a duty to do more than simply hint at the deception it was practising on the audience. In Ghostwatch there was a deliberate attempt to cultivate a sense of menace." They ruled that the programme was excessively distressing and graphic - referring to the scratches on the children and the mutilated animals - and that it had aired too soon after the 9pm watershed. They further stated that "the presence in the programme of presenters familiar from children's programmes ... took some parents off-guard in deciding whether their children could continue to view."

The film's producers argued that Ghostwatch had aired during a drama slot, that it was recognisable as fiction to a vast majority, and that running disclaimers or other announcements during the programme would have ruined its effectiveness. They also stated that, had they anticipated the audience reaction, they would have made its fictional nature clearer. However, after the BSC ruling they issued an apology

Simons and Silveira published a report in the British Medical Journal in February 1994, describing two cases of Ghostwatch-induced post-traumatic stress disorder in children, both ten-year-old boys. They stated that these were the first reported cases of PTSD caused by a television programme. Responses to the article described a further four cases in children aged between 11 and 14, as well as one case in an 8-year-old that stemmed from watching the pre-watershed hospital soap Casualty.

The respondents also noted the potential for similar reactions in elderly people. However, the conclusion of the article states "The rapid resolution of the children's symptoms suggests that the children suffered a brief anxiety reaction to the television programme; although they may have exhibited some of the features of post-traumatic stress disorder, this diagnosis in their cases is inappropriate."


Legacy:
Ghostwatch has also been credited for being amongst the direct inspirations for several other successful, contemporary works. A comment left by writer Stephen Volk on the official Ghostwatch: Behind the Curtains homepage claims that British illusionist Derren Brown once told him that the film had at least partially inspired his similarly controversial 'TV hoax' Séance. This was later confirmed by Brown himself whilst being interviewed for the BBC Four documentary Ghosts in the Machine.

The makers of The Blair Witch Project were reported to have seen the film before going on to make their own movie.


Ghostwatch: Behind the Curtains:

An 'in-development' retrospective documentary, set to look back at the controversial BBC Screen One drama. The Behind the Curtains subtitle is derived from where fictitious poltergeist, Pipes, 'hides' in the shared bedroom of characters, Kim and Suzanne Early. It is also one of the chapter headings on the official Ghostwatch DVD.


Developments:

On 21 February 2008, the GhostwatchBtC channel was officially launched on YouTube. All that was initially revealed regarding this elusive project was a notice asking fans of the original film to contribute any Ghostwatch-related stories or recollections via the comments boxes provided.

The first video to appear on the page was a short teaser trailer announcing the project's existence. Consisting almost entirely of clips taken from the original film, the aspect ratio had most notably been re-framed from the (circa 1992) standard TV format 4:3 to a more contemporary 14:9.

The first official confirmation that Ghostwatch writer, Stephen Volk was actively involved in the documentary's production can be seen in the video, A Message From Stephen Volk in which he asks fans of the original film to "keep in tune for future updates".

On 31 October 2008 (exactly sixteen years after the original film was originally broadcast), an official blog was launched. The first article to be published was written by the documentary's creator, Richard Lawden, in which he revealed the idea to make a retrospective first originated at a Cineformation screening held at the Watershed (Bristol).

Subsequent articles have included a special Hallowe'en message from Stephen Volk, and a link to a new Ghostwatch article written by lead actor, Sir Michael Parkinson. Between December 2008 and February 2009, an official web forum, and Twitter, MySpace and Facebook pages were also added.

During the pilot episode of the Behind the Curtains podcast, (or 'PipesCast') made in conjunction with Red Dwarf fan-site Ganymede & Titan, it was revealed that the retrospective documentary project is still ongoing, and has a provisional release date of 2012 (in time for the original film's 20th anniversary). It was also revealed that the project has been brought to the attention of the BBC.

To mark the show's 18th anniversary, a 'live' event took place in lieu of a full repeat screening on British television. Dubbed National Séance 2010, fans were asked to simultaneously play their personal recordings of the show at precisely 9.25pm (just as Ghostwatch was originally broadcast) and tweet about the screening as it happened on the social networking site Twitter. The event has subsequently become a yearly tradition.

On October 31, 2011, the first official production still was uploaded to mark both Hallowe'en Night and the conclusion of National Séance 2011. The image features castmembers, Sarah Greene and Mike Smith sitting with an interviewer, and two additional crewmembers, in an aircraft hangar. A quote beneath the picture reads, "Stay tuned for 2012, Ghostwatchers".
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